Neurological disorders

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Neurological disorders

Neurological disorders can affect the child’s development in a single or all areas, including motor, language, learning and cognition. Such neurological disorders can affect any of the entire system of the body, or be focused on the nervous system, where most of the damage is noted.

Many neurological disorders in children are congenital, which means that they develop in the uterus and the child is born with the disorder.

Some others may be hereditary and manifest only later in life, and, finally, some disorders may be acquired secondary to environmental exposure or trauma.

Types of Neurological Disorders in Children
Movement Disorders
Movement disorders are a group of neurological disorders characterized by abnormalities in quality, speed, timing and synchronization of movements when they are executed. In children (and even adults), it has been established by researchers that almost (if not) all movement disorders occur secondary to a defect or injury to the basal ganglia; which is the center of the brain responsible for the execution movement and coordination. In adults, for example, movement disorders such as Parkinson’s disease stem of the basal ganglia.

Metabolic diseases of genetic origin
Metabolic diseases of genetic origin could cause systemic effects, targeting all parts of the body. In general, these diseases are caused by the deficiency or lack of a specific enzyme that is supposed to catalyze the metabolism of one product to another. As a result, the original product ends construction in our cellular organelles, causing microscopic defects with macroscopic effects.

The most common brain complications of metabolic diseases of genetic origin are seizures, developmental delay, growth retardation, muscle weakness and glucose metabolism.

  • Phenylketonuria (PKU)
  • Maple syrup urine disease.
  • Menkes disease
  • Lesch-Nyhan syndrome.
  • Glycogen storage diseases.
  • Others

Neuromuscular diseases
In children, neuromuscular defects are usually derived from genetic abnormalities that cause the alteration of nerve and muscle structures. They are the main cause of physical disability in children.

  • congenital myasthenial syndrome,
  • Duchenne muscular dystrophy,
  • Congenital myopathies
  • hereditary spinal atrophies.

Neurological disorders in children can also be caused by a physical injury to the brain that occurs secondary to trauma or accidents. It can also refer to brain diseases that are caused by prolonged exposure to toxic metals, either in the womb or in everyday life.

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