Nutritional disorders

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Nutritional disorders

Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency is associated with hematologic, neurologic, and psychiatric manifestations. Subacute combined degeneration, neuropsychiatric symptoms, peripheral neuropathy and optic neuropathy are the classic neurological consequences of B12 deficiency, Nutritional neuroscience is the scientific discipline that studies the effects various components of the diet such as minerals, vitamins, protein, carbohydrates, fats, dietary supplements, synthetic hormones, and food additives have on neurochemistry, neurobiology, behavior, and cognition. Recent research on nutritional mechanisms and their effect on the brain show they are involved in almost every facet of neurological functioning including alterations in neurogenesis, neurotrophic factors, neural pathways and neuroplasticity, throughout the life cycle.Relatively speaking, the brain consumes an immense amount of energy in comparison to the rest of the body. The human brain is approximately 2% of the human body mass and uses 20–25% of the total energy expenditure Therefore, mechanisms involved in the transfer of energy from foods to neurons are likely to be fundamental to the control of brain function.[4] Insufficient intake of selected vitamins, or certain metabolic disorders, affect cognitive processes by disrupting the nutrient-dependent processes within the body that are associated with the management of energy in neurons, which can subsequently affect neurotransmission, synaptic plasticity, and cell survival

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